The advent of television has undergone different stages aimed at improving the visual quality of the product and also ensuring that television remains ahead of the pack when it comes to entertainment. This report looks at the innovation of 3D television technology especially the process itself and how the new innovation technology works its brief history is also examined together with the features of the new invention, advantages and disadvantages of the same and implications and future direction of the 3D television. This gives a descriptive process of the kind of technology employed which is mainly incremental innovation as it builds on the already existing 2D television.
Television is undoubtedly the most cherished form of entertainment of all times. Ranging from sports to comedies, people will be glued to their screens for long hours than they can do to any other form of entertainment. Television has evolved over the years due to the descriptive images that it brings (Oliensis 2000)
. It engages both the sense of sight and sound which develops much attention from the viewer. In order to maintain its dominance, television has undergone innovation to better the quality of images to the pleasure of the audience. Initially, television images came in black and white color. Developments saw it evolve to multicolor and of late, from two dimensional to three dimensional picture display (Freeman 2001)
Developing the 3D image was an ancient idea. A Greek individual by the name Euklides who lived about 300 BC was the one who discovered the idea of a binocular eye sight. Later on, Leonardo da Vinci theorized the process by putting the pictures in 3 dimensions. Later in 1844, Brewster David introduced a device with the capability of raking photographic images which are in 3D, the stereoscope. This device was further enhanced by an individual called Duboscq Jules Louis. This enhancement followed the display of a famous picture of Victoria, the queen of Britain during the Great World Fair held in 1851. During the Second World War period, owning a stereoscopic 3D camera had become common with middle class families (Zisserman 2003)
. Most homes owned this camera for taking pictures of all kind. However, the war gave a blow to the 3D camera that was considered to be playful by many and led to the introduction of a new era that ushered in photographic realism, common with the black and white kind of pictures. The development of images and pictures was parallel to the development of 3D movies. The 3D television was implemented with real-time acquiring, transmitting and displaying of scenes which are dynamic (Girod 2003)
The innovation process and functioning
Change of television images to 3D technology is an incremental innovation process that builds on the existing 2D images (Johanson 2001)
. It involves real-time acquisition followed by transmission and display of 3D scenes that are dynamic. It engages a distributed architecture that is scalable for managing high computational and demanding bandwidths (Faugeras 1993)
. It working is based on an array of cameras and clusters of computers that are networked. There is then individual encoding of multiple video streams which are sent over to the display through a broadband network. The 3D display will show high resolution colour images that are stereoscopic for multiple viewpoints which eliminate the use of 3D glasses. This is how the television was innovated and functions.
Human beings normally gain the three dimensional perspective through a variety of different cues which include the binocular parallax and the motion parallax (Toet 2004)
3.1 Binocular parallax-
this refers to the seeing a different image, but of the same object with each eye. Each eye is exposed to a different angle of the image in view which creates the difference in the images. What the left eye is seeing is not what the right eye will see (ITU 2000)
3.2 Monocular parallax-
this refers to the seeing or visualizing different images of the same object usually experienced when moving the head. Different angles of the same object expose the eye to different images. It is like looking at an image from different angles which will probably create different visualizations
the capturing of images by a camera by giving it different angle shots in order to have different images of the same object.
when a certain image has been acquired, there is a transfer of the same through a medium so that it can reach its final destination which is a screen.
reproduction of a certain captured and transmitted image on a flat surface. The image captured may be altered so that it looks different in size and color to suit its purpose.
an optical device used for viewing stereo image pairs that are side by side. Using a stereoscope to view both images at ago produces an illusion of an object having a three dimensional depth (Vliegen 2000)
The following are the characteristics of 3D TV;
The 3D television supports various functions which makes it to be a product that is interesting. The functions include the PVR, USB hub slots for supporting flash disks and other removable. Furthermore, its HD compatibility is Freeview and comes with a wireless connection (Hutchinson 2005)
. All the above features make the television to be a focal point when it comes to entertainment. The remote control that comes with it has a very fancy look which gives viewers the temptation of holding it in their hands all the time they are glued to their screens.
There are different modes of the 3D which offer quite a different visual experience. One can choose to have a top and bottom mode, side by side mode, checker board mode and the vertical stripe mode. All the different modes are to the preference of the viewer and is free to select a mode that gives him/her exhilarating visual experience (Koch 1993)
The best example comes in the production by the film industry. The movie Avatar
by James Cameron released in December 2009 is an example of a successful 3D blockbuster. This has propelled the production of live action movies using the 3D technology to enhance visual comfort for the viewers. The actual 3D television is already available with manufacturers like Samsung (40C7000 Model) and Mitsubishi taking the lead in its production and distribution worldwide to ensure that it reaches the target market without much restriction for improved viewer experience.
The advent of innovation in television technology may have seen a breakthrough with 3D images. Consuming 3D content on the television will majorly be driven by video content in 3D format, 3D television programs and console games that are 3D in nature. Furthermore, 3D video development will largely depend on the production of movies which incorporate 3D technology in their shooting of the same (Pollefeys 2000)
. This is expected to be a representation of about 10 to 15 % of the films produced yearly. The release of some blockbuster 3D version movies such as Star Wars
has played a significant role in 3D video development. Video in 3D format is also available on digital format and also physical format which is the blu-ray version (Dodgson 2004)
For the product to be accepted worldwide, it has to have certain features which impress viewers into buying it. The following are such factors which may be taken to be its advantages
- Improved viewer experience- this is one of the major factors that will push many consumers to buy the product. It gives one the idea of feeling themselves inside the video game or movie being watched or played. Even a simple movie is said to take part of one’s real life.
- Elimination of the use of 3D glasses- for the new 3D television model, it eliminates the use of 3D glasses which were initially worn to give the feeling of being involved in the actual movie or game being watched and played respectively (Blommaert 2000).
Innovation in the television industry may have achieved a major breakthrough but its access and spread will largely depend on how consumers and other viewers perceive the product to be.
- Strenuous effect- a good approximation of people who have attended 3D movies or interacted with the television did not like it citing various reasons like eye fatigue, being uncomfortable with the eye glasses among other issues. This may develop a dislike for the product hence hampering its adoption (Berthold 1997).
- The price factor- this does not only affect developing countries but also has a toll on the developed countries. Majority of the purchases for television are influenced by price. Since most of the content for 3D television is available in form of pay-TV packages, the twenty dollar premium might seem high for some households who will eventually shy away from the product. Furthermore, the price of the product will also scare away many buyers as a medium screen is estimated to cost about 4,000 US dollars. This means that it can only be afforded by the rich and affluent class (Pentland 1999).
The first implication deals with the price of the television. A medium size three dimension television is estimated to cost about 4,000 US dollars for one to purchase it. This kind of product cannot be afforded by many, it therefore implies that the television will mainly be afforded by the rich (Seidel 2003)
. This limits its access and adoption by low income earners who cannot afford that amount.
The second implication is that due to the kind of technology involved in production of its content, the three dimension television will be limited to live performances and events like sports, operas and others. Everything can thus not be watched using the three dimension television (Pastoor 1997)
One of the future directions of three dimension television is increasing the content that can be viewed on the television. This will not be limited to pay—TV services, cable and fibre access, much of the content will be generated to increase the range of what can be watched using the television. Content will also not be limited to live performances but technological innovation will make it possible to broadcast content that is not live (Ahumada 1993)
The 3D television is set to give viewers an experience that will take part of their real life when watching movies and playing games (Engeldrum 2004)
. Though some have required viewers to use glasses, the latest model of the television does away with the use of glasses to feel the three dimension experience. Much innovation will continue on the same as different forms of entertainment compete for the attention of their audiences. This is set to bring more innovation and development on the current 3D television which is owned by few individuals due to its cost. As time goes by, the cost will come down to much affordable ones.
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