Marine Environment Diseertation

5 Pages   |   828 Words

The effects of Marine Protected Areas on Recreational fishing, with a focus on temperate waters.


Marine protection is the initiative of protection of wildlife and the ecosystem in Oceans and seas all over the world.  These programs are aimed at limiting and restoring damages caused by human interactions to the eco system of these oceans and seas. These programs also strive to save and protect vanishing and endangered species in the Oceans.  Marine protection as a discipline is relatively new. Marine protectionists rely on information gathered from both scientific sources and human factors.  The information from scientific sources comes from fisheries science, marine biology and oceanography. In the same way, information from human sources is gathered through marine law, economics and demand of marine resources. Marine protectionist basically combined the information gathered from both of these sources and then formulates ways to save and conserve the marine ecosystem. Marine protected areas receive a lot of attention of the general public and are an ongoing activity in many countries of the world.

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The need for Marine protection:

The need for marine protection is because of the negative effects of human activities at coral reefs which are central to the entire ecosystem and wildlife in seas and Oceans.  These coral reefs have a very vital role on providing food, shelter and breeding space for various marine species. These coral reefs also benefit human beings in aiding their survival through providing sea food and employment opportunities to people living in colonies near coral reefs. The two biggest issues affecting marine life are the overfishing and commercial destructive fishing practices and the pollution caused by increased carbon content in the oceans. These two issues are negatively affecting the marine ecosystem. The increased industrial pollution is causing various deceases in the oceans of the world and resulting in coral bleaching all over the world. According to an estimate 88% of the coral reefs in South Asia are under great threat of disappearing in the next few years.
Many treaties and organizations are working worldwide to protect the marine ecosystem. The most well known treaty for the protection of marine ecosystem was formed in 1966 called the convention of fishing and conservation of living resources of the high seas. The laws related to marine conservation include the Marine protection act (1972) and the Marine protection, research and sanctuaries act (1972). Quite recently in 2010, the Scottish parliament enforce Marine protection Act which introduced such concepts as the marine planning, fishing licensing and protection of seals act. The Marine protecting activities are aided by new technologically advance programs called turtle excluding devices (TEDS), Radio frequency Identification (RFID) and Marine conservation as well.

Recreational Fishing Trends:

The MPAs and recreational fishing done by the general public, tourists have to on the same line to make the conservation of marine life successful, but there are always disputes, non compliance in every part of the world. Recreational fishing is one of the favorite pastimes all over the world. According to an estimate alone there are 34 million anglers (age 16 or less), which make up 16% of the population engage in fishing every year in both marine and fresh waters. The average days spent in this activity every year is 16 days.
Globally, in 2000 alone nine million anglers visited the Atlantic, Gulf and Pacific Oceans and fished approximately 429 million fishes. In the same way in Australia, One quarter of the total population participate in the large chartered recreational sector of the country. In New Zealand also 400,000 anglers out of a population of 3.7 million people, and this recreational fishing accounts for 35% of the total fish caught every year.
As per the marine recreational survey carried out each year, it is evident that recreational fishing trend is growing in the United States and neighboring countries.  From 1996 to 2000 the number of recreational trips has risen by 20%, and this rise has resulted in conflicts between the commercial fishing and recreational fishing, owing to depletion of fish stock in the natural waters.

Problem Statement:

The purpose of the current study will be to investigate how marine conservation efforts affect recreational fishing activities, how they are benefitting or negatively affecting recreational fishing efforts. What are main disputes in between recreational fishing and marine protected areas? What are the steps that need to be taken by policy makers so ensure the survival of marine ecosystem and benefit recreational fishing also.


Gubbay, S. (1995) 'Marine protected areas — past, present and future', Conservation Biology Series, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 1-14.
Ovetz, R. (2006) 'The bottom line: An investigation of the economic, cultural and social', Marine Policy, vol. 30, no. 1, pp. 809-820.
Saloman, A.K., Gaichas, S.K. and Jensen, O.P. (2011) 'Bridging the Divide Between Fisheries', BULLETIN OF MARINE SCIENCE, vol. 87, no. 2, p. 251–274.
Sutinena, J.G. and Johnstonb, R.J. (2003) 'Angling management organizations: integrating the recreational', Marine Policy, vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 471-487.

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