Consumer Behaviour

10 Pages   |   2,806 Words

Please select an advertisement (from print media and/or internet), attach it to your   answer sheets; and discuss the following related to the ad:

What are the primary and secondary motives and major appeal in the ad?

The buying motive pertinent to the print ad of Ford primarily links to the utilitarian aspect whereby, an old vehicle requires replacement. However, the physical aspects must be emphasized such as convenience, appearance, and performance. Secondary motives include the rational preference for the Ford brand. The secondary motives can essentially be the rational aspect, whereby the pricing, social image, and empirical evaluation play a vital part.
The appeal utilized in this advertisement is that of fear. The fear appeal can be identified by the emphasis of trailers in terms of “wild animals”, which can be controlled by the Ford car.

What kind of perceptual cues do you see?

The perceptual cues providing stimulus are identified as the colour, shape and size. The car depicts a shine that tends to bring it in focus, whilst the background is emphasized with a wild aura that tends to link with the text “wild animals”. The tactile cue is essentially coarse in nature, whereby, the rigid pathway emphasizes the controlling environment of the car. Additionally, the colour scheme had retained emphasis on the car by shining it out in the foreground, whilst keeping a dull background relatively.

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What learning principles/theories are applied?

The cognitive approach to learning should be emphasized here; whereby, concrete words such as “Wild Animals” has been magnified to extent that after viewing this ad, one tends to retain them. Additionally, it is meaningful because it can be associated with rigid nature of the vehicle that has been subsequently linked through a pictorial reference that retains a similar ambience. The speech is not time compressed; thus, the most part of it cannot be recalled. Furthermore, there is a level of self-referencing here, since numerous times, my family has utilized trailers for a small vacation purposes, and so I can make a direct comparison on an emotional level.

What market segment(s) is (are) targeted?

The market segment targeted in the ad is families who tend to move a lot for any particular reason; whereby, the travellers may require crossing rigid terrain. These families may be involved in a lookout for temporary vacations and prefer to take pertinent luggage along. Additionally, this may cover individuals who are interested in travelling as a pertinent interest. This may entail interests such as mountaineering and the like, which may require passing through rocky terrains.

Has the marketer effectively positioned the product/service to communicate a specific image? If not, what would you suggest for repositioning?

The marketer does effectively position its vehicle because numerous individuals who do not own a trailer and do not succumb to the idea of travelling extensively cannot find an attachment with it. The primary point of difference is the attachment of a relevant concept of trailers that have not been utilized by its competitors. The ad inhibits attraction for its target market by providing a solution to their problem of dragging a trailer while subsequently associating distinction through the shiny surface and rigid texture of the vehicle.

List the possible risks the consumer may perceive in purchasing this product. What kind of risk reduction methods would you suggest to the marketer and to the consumer?

The risks that should be considered by the customer prior to making purchasing decisions include:
- Tire puncture
- Over heating
- Oil leaks due to rocky terrain drives
- Ability to withstand heavy transport of trailer
The marketer can be informed to incorporate elements of interest such as the maximum magnitude of load that can be carried by the vehicle. Additionally, the fixture of connection can be more elaborated to depict strength.
In case of the customers, the equipment’s available for fixing a punctured tire must be available, and the pressure gauge for tires should be handled. Furthermore, liquid coolants must be provided to avoid over heating problems, whilst taking care of not dragging excessive load in the trailer.

Mr. Özgür Alkan is an architect who has his own office with a partner in Levent, Istanbul. His specialty is mostly on projects for hotels and restaurants. He is 33 years-old, single and lives in a two-bedroom apartment in Kalamış. He wakes up early in the morning and runs or takes a bicycle tour on the coastline before going to his office.

Describe the personality characteristics and motives of Mr. Özgür Alkan.

Mr. Özgür Alkan personality characteristics can be evaluated through the Big Five personality traits.
  • Openness to experience: Mr. Alkan has an inventive and curious personality that tends to allow him to appreciate art, which can identified through the numerous artistic objects and accessories that tend to carry different meanings for him such as various stones, whereby he believes they carry good energy. Furthermore, he prefers photography and is interested in flying lessons, which depict his adventurous side.
  • Conscientiousness: Mr. Alkan is an organized individual which encompasses his living style, whereby he has a very comfortable and tasteful living environment in his house. Mostly, his actions are planned rather than acting spontaneously.
  • Extraversion: Mr. Alkan is a rather solitary and reserved individual whereby he prefers to stay at home mostly. Due to this hermit-like behaviour, he has a few friends with whom he meets regularly and a girlfriend. He prefers reading online newspaper and watch television.
  • Agreeableness: Mr. Alkan is a rather suspicious individual, as opposed to being agreeable that entails being compassionate and cooperative. This can be identified through his conservative nature with respect to the utilization of investment products.
  • Neuroticism: Mr. Alkan is a sensitive individual, whereby he has a tendency to experience glum emotions much easily. This is one of the reasons that Mr. Alkan prefers to stay at home mostly.
The motives of Mr. Alkan can be identified through the Maslows Hierarchy; whereby, it can be seen that his current focus is retained towards “safety”. This implies that he considers physical safety, financial security, and job security of utmost importance, as evident from his conservative nature towards investment products and physical shopping. Until the segment of his need is satisfied, he cannot consider socialization as being important.

How can a travel agency benefit from this description in preparing a program/value package offer to him and his girlfriend?

A travel agency can benefit from the aforementioned information through various means, for instance, Mr. Alkan’s openness to experience personality trait tends to allow the travel agency to put forth locations that have adventurous locations and significance. Additionally, the locations proposed must have immense scenic beauty to inspire his photographic skills. Furthermore, as considered under his conscientious personality trait, a completely planned and organized trait would attract Mr. Alken as it would allow him to suppress his rather suspicious personality trait as discussed under agreeableness.
All safety precautions should be explicitly discussed with Mr. Alkan because of his introvert nature, which would appreciate a detailed perspective of each spot and scenario in line with the costing element. Mr. Alkan’s sensitive nature must be appropriately addressed through constant online presence, which is a preferred medium as much of his spending spree tends to take place online.
Furthermore, in reference to his status on the Maslow’s Hierarchy, it is pertinent for the travel agency to focus on details and safety of Mr. Alkan’s health, money, and interests.

In addition to travel agency, what types of product/service companies may benefit from the above information in marketing their products/services, how?

Besides the travel agency, numerous other businesses may benefit from the aforementioned information. Hotels can profit from this information by providing a room with modern and stylish furniture, decorated with artistic objects and accessories. Additionally, emphasis can be placed on its location, fit for photographic shots. Furthermore, cost breakdown can be easily customized and accessed online. A real time view of the rooms can be provided for Mr. Alkan to safeguard his sensitive nature.
Numerous flying centres can utilize this information to allow a bird’s eye view of the country side spectacle to tourists, such as Mr. Alkan. A small pilot lesson can be availed through online coupons, allowing easy access to overseas customers.
Technology stores overseas and e-stores can utilize the information to provide various deals for travelling customers. These deals may include gadgets such as cameras, travel bag-packs, music collections, clothing discounts, so on and so forth.

Assume that you are appointed as the marketing manager of a green products company which is recently entering the Turkish market. A survey made by the company showed that consumers are indifferent to green products. They think that they are not performing as well as the non-green ones. In one region price reduction coupons for green products are mailed to consumers. In the other free samples were distributed. What results do you predict from these marketing efforts, why? In your discussion give references to different models/studies on attitude-behaviour relationship.

Considering the fact that consumers are rather indifferent to the advent of green products implies that they would be open to at least trying it out in case of the free samples. However, in case of the price reduction coupons, the results would be exceedingly low.
The Extended Fishbein Model, also known as the Theory of Reasoned Action, implies the fact that consumers rationally consider the implications of the varying choices such as green products and non-green products, and subsequently select the behaviour that leads to the most desirable results (White, Le, Martin, Gultmen, & Shinoy, 2008). However, there are certain obstacles that may hamper the process of predicting behaviour such as the design of the green product, time-frame, correspondence, and accessibility to attitude.
It is pertinent to note that attitudes determine behaviour, for instance, if individuals see the value relative to wearing seat belts, then they would be more likely to wear it (White, Le, Martin, Gultmen, & Shinoy, 2008). There are essentially four factors that tend to impact the relation between attitudes and behaviour. Firstly, behaviour, it should be noted that a general understanding of utilizing green products would not work; therefore, specific attitudes will identify specific behaviours. Secondly, persons, certain individual’s attitudes tend to be more related with their behaviour than others. Thirdly, situation, the context determines the predictability of the relationship; whereby, values and norms may be so intense with respect to green products that overt behaviour may reflect on private attitudes. Lastly, attitude, the predictive power can be identified in case of a vested interest, time pressure, and a focus of attention.

Assume that you are a marketing consultant, and that the general manager of a shopping centre requests a report from you related to the do-it-yourself section of the store. Please discuss specifically the following issues that will take place in your report:

What motives can be satisfied related to the products sold, and also to the shopping process, and place. How can you make the place attractive to consumers?

The motives that can be satisfied by purchasing do-it-yourself products essentially include hedonic experiences, whereby building up products and creating something enhances the sensory stimulation. Additionally, certain individuals have the motive of maintaining behavioural freedom. Similarly, the motives with respect to the shopping process may entail the primary motive of satisfying the need for safety; safety of financial and physical position. The place can be made attractive by highlighting promotions on various products. These promotions can attract individuals who are more inclined towards financial safety. Additionally, individuals can be allowed to try and put together something that they can then purchase if they like it.

How can the producer / marketer make use of the information about the self-concept theory, in marketing these products? Does the issue of multiple selves instead of one self make it easier or more difficult for the marketer?

The relevance of self-concept to a marketer holds in terms of provisioning a pertinent aspect or opinion of the consumer. Such individual opinions have a rather direct impact on the decision making and pattern of utilization or consumption (Liu & Keng, 2000). According to certain studies, this ideology of self-concept tends to have a greater impact on decision making compared to personality traits. The concept of multi selves makes it more difficult for the marketer because the dependence of emergence of actual self or ideal self on situational factors tends to complicate the buying behaviour, provisioning a fickle personality. Additional implications for a marketer may include complications with respect to segmentation i.e. use-situation segmentation and utilization-benefit (Kopetz, Kruglanski, Arens, Etkin, & Johnson, 2012).

How can you make use of the concept of high and low involvement to segment your market? How can the marketer measure consumers’ level of involvement?

Consumer involvement is essentially a state of mind that tends to perpetuate consumers in identifying with their product offering such as the DIY products, their pattern of consumption and the relevant consumption behaviour. The DIY category is a high involvement category; whereby, the level of rationality is higher. The decision making is majorly influenced by economic motives. The strategy followed in this scenario is a sequence of learning, feeling, and then doing. Additionally, there are numerous ways to measure the involvement magnitude. Primarily, the marketing mix must be created in a manner that it provides the activation of the involvement process. Following this step, there are numerous models such as the learn-feel-do matrix that can aid in optimizing the process.

How would you apply the knowledge of hemispherical lateralization (split brain theory) to the design of commercials for this place/store?

Considering the theory of hemispherical lateralization, DIY product segment requires high involvement; therefore, an emphasis on the left side of the brain. The left side of the brain tends to consider the information rationally and involves cognitive activities (White, Le, Martin, Gultmen, & Shinoy, 2008). Most of learning in this scenario is concerned with print media, whereby the involvement is high. The print media encompasses brochures that can aid in recall for the consumers, journals that tend to focus on the building aspect of the product.


To find about the above mentioned issues what type of research-qualitative and quantitative would be appropriate, why? How would you apply these research methods/techniques?

To identify the aforementioned aspect of consumer behaviour towards the pertinent segment of DIY products, both qualitative and quantitative research methods would be utilized. In lines with the qualitative methods, in-depth structured interviews would be conducted with various consumers and the line manager responsible for the DIY segment. Additionally, in case of the quantitative research, questionnaire would be utilized to identify trends in the consumption pattern and consumer behaviour relative to the segment. An in-depth analysis would allow for the identification of disconnects and loopholes in the marketing strategy. The sampling would be random and can be held at the shopping centre. The number of participants would be around 50, with equal proportions provided to males and females.

Which of the needs in Maslow’s hierarchy do you satisfy when you participate in social networks like Facebook and Twitter? How could these sites add new features to help you satisfy these needs?

Social networks like Facebook and Twitter are essentially an e-gateway to virtually satisfying certain needs. The Maslow’s hierarchy tends to depict these needs, only when a certain need segment is fulfilled and an individual jump into the next need segment. Social networks like Facebook and Twitter are an easily identifiable candidate towards the “social needs”. The social need, tend to crave for belonging to a group and a constant contact, which is complimented by huge albums that include pictures depicting the astounding presence of self-worth and self-confidence. Furthermore, the status update function is utilized to perpetuate this feeling across the friends list and entertain a continuous influx of comments. This virtual presence has invigorated a feeling of joy that opposes my physical personality, which is the opposite of extraversion. Facebook and Twitter can add new features that can allow for the continuous satisfaction of my social needs such as allowing me to have a video chat with my friends. Additionally, Twitter can consider allowing video posts that would help me passing messages in real time to my friends.


Hendrik, S. (n.d.). Blog: Ford Advertisement Analysis. Retrieved July 10, 2013, from Motortrend:
Kopetz, C., Kruglanski, A., Arens, Z., Etkin, J., & Johnson, H. (2012). The Dynamics of Consumer Behavior: A Goal Systemic Perspective. Journal of Consumer Psychology, Volume 22, Issue 2 , 208-223.
Liu, S., & Keng, K. A. (2000). Personal Values and Complaint Behaviour: The Case of Singapore Consumers. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, Volume 4, Issue 2 , 89-97.
White, O., Le, X., Martin, S., Gultmen, R., & Shinoy, C. (2008). Consumer Behaviour: Advanced Analysis. Penguin , 190-220.

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