Business and Management Decisions Making

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Table of Contents
Introduction. 3
Critical approach to literature: recruitment and selection practices – conventional methods vs. the use of social media. 4
Practical application: how Barclays makes use of social media for recruiting and selecting employees. 7
Barclays: An introduction. 7
Barclays: presence on social media platforms. 8
Barclays recruitment processes: using social media. 8
Conclusion and recommendations. 10
References. 13


The field and profession of HRM manage individuals and people within an organization, or associated with an organization, with a humane approach (Hersey, Blanchard, & Johnson, 2001). The HRM function also ensures that in addition to meeting the organizational goals and achieving the business aims, employees also work towards growth and development of their own selves, and are self-satisfied. The HRM function is significantly important to organizations because of its focus on the development of the human resources, as well as on the effective management of the employees and individuals concerned with the organization (Perkins & Arvinen-Muondo, 2013).
To achieve these goals and objectives, the HRM   works with the purpose of ensuring active availability of employees within the organization – who are motivated and willing to work toward as achieving the organizational goals and objectives through the optimal use of their skills (Collings & Mellahi, 2009). The HRM   department is responsible for HR planning, conducting a job analysis, developing job designs and roles, planning and conducting recruitment and hiring activities, designing and implementing employee training and development activities, as well as assessing the job roles and employee performance to develop compensation and benefits packages (Lewis & Heckman, 2006). Additionally, the HRM department is also responsible for maintaining industrial relations and keep up to date with industrial trends (Dowling, 2008).
Recruitment and selection of the right employees and talent have been one of the most important responsibilities of HRM – especially in the face of growing globalization (Quintanilla & Ferner, 2003). With a dearth of talent and increased competition, organizations that are successful in attracting larger pools of quality employees are able to develop a competitive edge over their rivals (Handfield-Jones, Michaels, & Axelrod, 2001). The HRM of companies and organizations has evolved with time, and the recruitment and selection processes and activities have also changed to meet the altering needs and demands of the industry as well as the prospective employees (Kluemper & Rosen, 2009). Today, organizations are beginning to bypass the conventional and the traditional channels of recruitment and selections; and at the same time, employees are also using novel means of reaching out to, and communicating with, prospective employees (Sivertzen, Nilsen, & Olafsen, 2013).
One of these means is that of social media. Social media has enriched the staffing and the recruitment process by creating an open environment where employees and organizations can both search for the right job roles and positions (Hauptmann & Steger, 2013). Social networking platforms such as Facebook, LinkedIn, and Twitter have started to play an important role in the recruitment process. This paper will explore the role of social media networks in the recruitment and selection processes. The paper will first analyse the difference between the conventional means of recruitment with the use of social media networks for the same purpose. This analysis will include the impact the use of social media for recruitment purposes on different stake holders. The paper will then explore the real-life case of Barclays Bank, and how it has made use of social networking sites and social media for purposes of recruitment and selection of employees. The paper will conclude with a brief summary of the findings, and recommendations regarding how effective and strategic use of social media can enhance the recruitment and selection process for organizations.

Critical approach to literature: recruitment and selection practices – conventional methods vs. the use of social media

As has been highlighted, one of the most important responsibilities and activities of the HRM   function is that of recruitment and selection. The HRM   function of organizations works hard to attract a high number of talented and quality employees (Sims, 2007). Appealing to a large number of employees broadens the talent pool for organizations, and enables them to gain a competitive advantage over other players in the industry. This is because these organizations are then able to become more selective during the hiring process and decisions – which leads to the overall increased effectiveness. These organizations are also more successful in attracting and acquiring high quality talent, which then leads to higher returns for the organizations through increased productivity (Ahmad & Schroeder, 2002).
Recruitment in itself may be defined in a number of different ways. According to (Rynes, Bretz, & Gerhart, 1991), recruitment may be defined as all processes and activities within an organization that impact and influence the number as well as the type of individuals who are willing to apply for and/or accept a job position. Similarly, according to Breaugh & Starke (2000), recruitment may be defined as processes and practices whose primary function is to identify potential employees for organizational job roles and positions, informing them about the vacant job positions as well as about the different organizational characteristics, and persuading them to join the organization through acceptance of the job roles and positions. (Breaugh, 2013)puts forward a more recent definition of recruitment and states that recruitment may be defined as ‘an employer’s actions that are intended to (1) bring a job opening to the attention of potential job candidates who do not currently work for the organization, (2) influence whether these individuals apply for the opening, (3) affect whether they maintain interest in the position until a job offer is extended, and (4) influence whether a job offer is accepted’. According to Breaugh (2013) definition of recruitment, job seekers and prospective employees psychologically engage with an organization through different information sources. These information sources influence and help shape their perception, attitudes and beliefs regarding the organization, and its image. 
According to Noe, et al. (2003), social media is fast gaining popularity in today’s world as a means of recruitment. Social media has been defined as the production, consumption as well as the exchange of information and content through online interactions that take place on social platforms via the internet i.e. wen 2.0 (Carim & Warwick, 2013). Organizations that use the social media for purposes of recruitment and selection of employees are seen to be innovative as well as receptive to technological progress and advances (Badea, 2014). Individuals and especially the youth have increased interaction with the social media, and organizations see this as potential opportunity to not only interact with the prospective talent but also use social media to their advantage. Organizations have started to use social media to build strong brand images of their organizations in order to appeal to and attract quality talent pools and applicants to their organizations (Bradwell & Reeves, 2008).
The increased popularity and usage of social networking platforms such as LinkedIn, Facebook, and Twitter have also influenced organizations to adapt and adopt social media networks because of the potential it holds for interaction with the youth. The social media networks and platforms have millions of users. This is a large segment of talent acquisition that cannot be ignored by organizations and HR in their search for the right employees. Consequently, the HR is increasingly leveraging the power of social media for purposes of recruitment and selection through interacting and engaging with current as well as potential employees (Florkowski & Olivas-Luján, 2006). Interestingly, the use of social media for job seeking purposes has also increased considerably in generation Y, who use it for purposes of building an online career presence, as well as for searching for jobs. According to Nigel Wright Recruitment (2011), more than 50% of all UK jobseekers use the social media for purposes of the employment search. Of these, 18% use Facebook, and 31% use LinkedIn. It may be that social media may be best for recruiting and selecting younger people, for example for graduates. Although companies used to rely on traditional methods of recruitment and selection, in recent times, one of the best ways of recruiting potential staff is through social media sites, such as LinkedIn, Facebook and Twitter. They state LinkedIn dominates the world of job searching and recruiting. Via this site, job seekers can search directly for job openings, as well as follow the latest news about the company. Facebook and Twitter also useful for companies to advertise jobs.
The use of social media tools and platforms differs considerably from the traditional and conventional means of recruitment and selection processes. The traditional means of recruitment and selection occurred through means such as campus drives as well as advertisements and calls for CVs. The traditional channel for recruitment has been utilized for the fulfilment of active vacancies, and active job demands. In contrast, the objective of recruitment through social media if not only for active job fulfilment but also passive job fulfilment (Dutta, 2014). Similarly, traditional recruitment processes made use of channels of newspapers, referrals, recruitment consultants and head-hunters, job boards and direct approaches. Social media recruitment, instead, takes place through channels and platforms of social media such as blog sites, micro-blogging websites, online forums and discussion groups, and social networks such as LinkedIn. Interestingly, traditional recruitment measures used pre- and post-outcomes of hires as well as operational efficiencies as metrics of measure, whereas social media recruitment makes use of employer branding and personalized engagement as metrics of measure (Dutta, 2014). Moreover, where the traditional means of recruitment had been general, social media has forced employers to become more personalized and individualized with their recruitment approach. Similarly, traditional means of recruitment targeted all individuals who matched the job positions and roles open in an organization. Social media has helped organizations target more tech savvy and younger applicants who have access to the social media. Lastly, traditional recruitment processes were not engaging and allowed the HR to engage with the applicant only through the recruitment and the hiring process. In contrast, social media recruitment allows for a longer tenure of engagement which is continuous (Dutta, 2014).
Social media recruitment has benefitted all stake holders involved in the recruitment process. For job seekers, social media has allowed means of continuous communication with the organization. Job seekers are able to know about all the different phases of the recruitment and are able to channel their queries regarding the recruitment process directly at the organization. Moreover, they are aware of the different stages of the recruitment cycle. For the HRM   departments of different organizations, social media has provided access to a larger talent pool where the hr. consultants can target specific groups that may be suitable for a job position. This saves times, as well as other resources, and also lowers the cost of recruitment activities (Business Insider, 2014). The overall organization benefits from increased levels of productivity and higher efficiency.

Practical application: how Barclays makes use of social media for recruiting and selecting employees

The increased popularity of social media has given all organizations – including banks – a chance to improve their recruitment and selection processes. However, to benefit from social media as a recruitment avenue, the HRM functions of banks must pursue it actively and build competencies to use it effectively. Barclays is one of the banks that has started to use social media actively for purposes of recruitment and selection, in addition to using it as a brand building channel. This section of the paper will present an overview of how Barclays has made use of social media channels and platforms for purposes of recruitment and selection- thereby shedding light on how the aforementioned theory has been utilized in practicality.

Barclays: An introduction

Barclays is a global financial services provider which works with personal banking, credit cards as well as corporate and investment banking. Barclays also specializes in wealth and investment management of its employees. The company maintains a presence in over 50 countries spanning cross Europe, Asia Pacific, Africa, the Middle East, and the Americas. With over 325 years of experience as a provider of financial services to customers, the company is headquartered in London, UK, with an employee base of 140000 people across the globe (MarketLine, 2017).
With a thriving global brand and innovative services in international markets, Barclays continues to meet challenges as well as opportunities. However, it ensures consistency and quality of service to employees through recruiting the right people across the globe that match its corporate culture and that will help the company achieve its goals and objectives. In return, the company also promises to facilitate the growth and development of its employees. Barclays strives to employ individuals who offer the bank with a diverse set of kills and perspectives but share the same values and purpose as that of the company (Barclays, 2012).
Through the use of social media, Barclays has been able to assess the competency of different individuals in their ability to work with the bank's environment and culture, and assess the value so the individuals as well to identify if they will be compatible with the bank or not in the long term. Social media has allowed Barclays to specify its recruitment process, and target specific groups of job seekers who match the job profile to reduce costs and resource wastage and improve the overall efficiency of the recruitment and selection process.

Barclays: presence on social media platforms

Barclays has a presence on popular social media networks, including Facebook, Twitter and LinkedIn (Barclays, 2017a). The company uses all these platforms as a means of recruitment and selection, and for appealing to and attracting a higher quality talent pool. As with the traditional and conventional recruitment processes, the recruitment and selection processes and activities conducted via that social media channels at Barclays aim towards attracting a hiring the right people for the right job roles and positions. The company strives to ensure that the individuals inducted get the opportunity to not only display and utilize their skills and experience but also enhance and build upon it through the ban's support – ultimately helping employees excel in their professional as well as personal lives. However, for this to be possible, it is important for the bank to continually train its HR staff so that they are able to meet the challenges as well as the opportunities associated with social media recruitment and selection processes (Barclays, 2017c).

Barclays recruitment processes: using social media

Like other growing companies and organizations, Barclays looks at social media networks as a means for active as well as passive recruitment that allows its HRM to assess individuals in personal yet in a professional manner. Barclays has been working to build its employer brand on social networking platforms in order to position itself as an appealing place workplace as well as to communicate and interact with potential employees and candidates. Recruitment through social networking platforms allows Barclays to message prospective employees directly, as well as getting introduced to prospective employees through connections. Barclays also uses social networking platforms to post job openings – thereby targeting and inviting specific talent pools to connect with the company. The Barclays profile on social media networks, therefore, seeks to engage with the communities where it is present and where it works to answer queries, post offers, and promote job vacancies and openings. This section of the report will briefly look at how Barclays makes use of social networking platforms for purposes of recruitment and selection.
Barclays has a dedicated Facebook, Twitter and LinkedIn profile which works towards recruitment and selection processes of the bank. All these social networking platforms work in synergy to promote job vacancies, as well as to access the right people for the vacancies. The Tweet in Figure 1, for example, highlights how Barclays makes use of Twitter to promote job openings. Interestingly, Barclays has made use of relevant hashtags to reach the broader target audience and has also specified the location to avoid unnecessary traffic. The LinkedIn website in the tweet allows job seekers to explore what Barclays can offer them through employment, thereby creating an aspect of transparency (Nicols, 2013).
A blog page
Figure 1Barclays using Twitter for recruitment purposes
Similarly, as can be seen through figure 2, Barclays has a LinkedIn presence, where the LinkedIn profile is used for recruitment and for purposes of posting job vacancies to attract the right people for the positions.
Figure 2Barclay uses LinkedIn for purposes of recruitment
Barclays also has a Facebook page to recruit prospective employees for its graduate program. The Facebook profile, interestingly, only deals with the youth and fresh graduates – highlighting the need for companies to use social media to connect with Generation Y individuals (Barclays, 2017b).
The importance of social media networks for purposes of recruitment and selection can be gauged thought he words of Yasaman Hadjibashi, chief data officer at Barclays Africa, who states that "Social data is becoming more and more important to companies. For example, when it comes to job applications and recruitment, companies will Google your name and trawl through at least the first two pages of searches and go through links to find out more information about you" (Brinded, 2016, p. 1). This will be done in order ensure a job seeker’s compatibility with the bank’s culture and values.

Conclusion and recommendations

With the growing importance placed on individuals as assets rather than costs, the HRM function of organizations have come in the forefront, and have become strategic partners with the organization's leadership to ensure goal attainment and goal achievement. The strategic importance form originates from the fact that it helps the company and the organization design and draft goals and objectives keeping in view the human labour and human resources available for its fulfilment. The HRM department is, therefore, tasked with the important responsibility of recruiting the right employees for the right job roles and job positions. 
This responsibility has become all the more important in the face of increasing globalization. As companies have grown across borders and expanded their operations of different parts of the worst, it has become more important for the organization to recruit employees that are compatible with the global corporate culture and values of the organization. One means through which the HRM function has enhanced its recruitment operations and purpose is of suing the social media platforms. Social media platforms and channels allow the HRM to engage with the employees in the long term as well as allows them opportunities to continuously communicate with the organization throughout the recruitment process's this is important in building trust with the organization, as well as in developing transparency with the target audience. Social media recruitment has also been an effective means for the HRM function because of the ease It offers sin accessing, approaching, communicating with, and reviewing potential candidates for various job roles. Not only is it cost and resource effective, but it also saves time. 
As has been reviewed in the paper, social media recruitment different considerably and significantly from congenital recruitment means. The paper has looked at the ca of Barclays to understand how social media recruitment works. The paper has highlighted the use of social media networks by Barclays to attract and communicate with a large number of potential employees, especially graduates. However, despite the pros that it offers, social media recruitment is still evolving and must be practised with expertise.
Analysis of literature pertaining to the use of social media tools for purposes of recruitment and selection, as well as the brief overview of Barclays regarding the same, has highlighted that banks need to adopt social media more readily and persistently for purposes of HRM functions. Moreover, banks such as Barclays must also invest in the training of HRM personnel to avoid risk factor associated with overstepping the privacy of individuals when using social media platforms. Social media sites, such as Facebook and Twitter may present sensitive information about individuals as well – through their interactions as well as because of personal discretion. This information may range from political affiliations to demographic information. It is important for organizations, and especially banks, to draft and communicate clear procedures and regulations regarding the use of social media for purposes of recruitment and selection in order to maize cases of litigation. Similarly, banks such as Barclays must use social media networks to inform the public about its recruitment processes to maintain transparency and honesty.
Additionally, since the social media means of recruitment are still evolving, it is recommended that organizations and banks such as Barclays continue to use the traditional and conventional means of recruitment and selection as well – including placing advertisements and campus drives, as well as face to face networking. This will help develop strong feedback in terms of applicants. These organizations, however, must also continue to use the new approaches based on social media platforms and channels. This is because the contemporary means of recruitment have not entirely replaced the traditional processes, but rather work to complement the existing human resource practices and procedures. As a result, it would be safe to state that where the social media tools are not a replacement in finality for the traditional hiring and selection processes and activities, they are a means of supplementing them to enhance the overall value and productivity of the organization.


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